R language plays a major role in big data analysis. It is an open source programming language which mainly deals with statistical investigation of data.

R can be self- learnt easily with the help of some online courses or books.

After installing R and R studio, I would suggest to go with some books to kick start. Then read online, take some courses as in udemy and read more and more books. And keep practicing in the R studio. Even if you are without any prior programming experiences, this language is easily understandable and well structured.

Online courses are really worth as it gives you a one to one connection with the instructor while practicing. If you are serious of learning R, don’t be hesitated to take even paid courses.

Recommended books

R for Everyone: Advanced Analytics and Graphics 

Big Data in Practice : How 45 Successful Companies Used Big Data Analytics to Deliver Extraordinary Results

R’s creators: Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman (Stable beta version in 2000)

Again problems with apk installations via itunes..?
Apple had removed that app section in the latest version of iTunes 12.7 [released on September 19th 2017]. So there after this simple drag and drop solution as in the post Where in the world are the apps in iTunes library? helped to rectify the trouble.
But installing from the iTunes is not working for some times even with this drag and drop solution
I got a solution for this from Apple support site itself. Just go to this link and download the iTunes version Apple released
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT208079
This itunes version can be used to download your app. And with this the previous App section is back in our ITunes folder.

While filing an issue, many a time the tester miss to add additional details specific to the bug. They must have done all the normal procedures, say like, steps, expected and actual results, environment details and all should have filed along with the issue.

But still sometimes the customer ends up in asking for further information, which is in fact a bit frustrating for them. During those cases both parties [customer and tester] need to invest additional effort to make the bug report adequate.

So just ensure a few of the points below if your bug is any of this type.

#If your bug is onDon't miss to attach
1Partial visibility of some buttons or something like thatDetails of screen resolution
2Some sentence correctionsYour suggestions on how to rewrite the sentence
3Some overlapping related issuesDetails in both landscape and portrait mode
4Page load issues Speed test result

A bug title is read more frequently than any other part of the bug report. So it has to be meaningful and easily understandable.

For example,

A bug : In the application while the user go to ‘xxx’ tab and search for an item with numeric characters, the app crashes

Poorly written bug title: App crashes

Here the bug title doesn’t summarize the scenario behind the crash

An average bug title: Searching in the ‘xxx’ tab leads to a crash

Here again the bug title is actually creating a false impression of the bug.

It could have better reworded like, “App crashes on searching in the xxx tab with numeric characters

Infact my suggestion would be to revisit and update the bug title finally, once the report is made fully.

After describing the issue, steps, expected and actual results, just look at the bug title. Definitely, you can do betterment on the same at the final stage.

So initially while starting to file the bug, just add a sentence or even some random keywords in the issue. Or even sometimes, just put whatever comes to your mind, say “my family”. [but of course don’t forget to change it properly at the end].

And finally, once the entire report is ready, revisit the bug title and update it properly. Spend a little more time on the issue title and have two or three revised titles so that it becomes fully meaningful at the end.

It’s always nice when you learn something new, try it yourself, test it, rectify the glitches, and finally feel the moment of fulfillment.

This is what I felt when I hosted my personal blog

There were so many issues while I was shifting from wordpress.com site to this self-hosted site. Infact actually it’s easy if you are starting from a self-hosted site itself as I did for… 656 more words

via Moving to Self-hosted WordPress Site — Words and Notion

Oops… that’s a show stopper one..

How did it happen..?

Most of the time when I try to reproduce  a crash issue I start thinking from the very first step and finally end up nowhere. Often the crash should have happened with the last step only.. Mostly it wouldn’t have any relation with the initial steps. So I am training myself to just recollect and redo the final steps.

Okay, so how all normally a show stopper issue or the so called crash issue happens in a mobile application?

I am adding a few of such checkpoints here…

  1. While the activity is playing in the app, just come out of the same by pressing the home button of the device and then try to return back
  2. Make the app in background by launching another app and then return to the app under test from recent window.
  3. Do interrupt the app via some mechanisms like phone calls or messaging
  4. Try an offline testing
  5. Try a test under weak battery
  6. Try offline-online switching frequently
  7. Landscape- portrait switching
  8. Access the app via multiple accounts at the same time
  9. Delete and already deleted item from the app if it’s shown for a while

How to install ipa on the device?

Are apps missing from the left section of your iTunes window?

Wondering where in the world are the apps in iTunes library?

A bit Google search helped me to understand that Apple had removed that app section in the latest version of iTunes 12.7 [released on September 19th 2017]

As a tester/developer it would be real trouble for you especially when you want to install a new apk in your ios device.

Never you are left alone. Always there is a workaround if something fails

I was so happy when I found this simple drag and drop solution to this trouble.

So here go the simple steps for you

  1. Save the ipa in your desktop
  2. Connect your ios device and your computer/laptop using the USB cable
  3. Open iTunes [might appear automatically]
  4. Drag and drop ipa on theDevices section on your device name only
  5. You are done.

It is time for a change, a renovation in process consultancy. For the last 40 or 50 years, the same steps are being followed; the same thought process is being applied with little or no change.

In between, industry specific new standards/models got evolved and practiced. Other than that no major change happened in the process consultancy arena. From where to start the change..?

If the right process is followed in the right way by the project team itself, then there is no need of a second person to ensure process compliance. But occurrence of mistakes is a common phenomenon especially when there is human intervention (and even with machines too). Hence it is always recommended to have an external person for verifying the process compliance.

The following questions may seem questioning the validity of existing well known standards or models. With due respect to all of those standards, I am trying to see the process frame work through different angles- “the second generation of Process Consultancy”.

• If all the projects are being executed in the same way following the same written process and procedures, how can they be innovative?

• If lessons earned are documented, passed to the followers and practiced, won’t they be copycats?

• Is the written process really fitting your projects or aren’t you pretending it to be okay, just to avoid the tailoring procedures?

• Is there really an established process for at least half part of your project or aren’t you just executing it as it come up on your way?

The questions won’t end here..it continues till there is a second generation. And then, only those consultants who have subject expertise as well as analytical nature may be the most suitable for next century organizations.

Horizontal traceability shows relationship among related items such as between requirements itself. It traces dependent items within a development phase. Vertical traceability is a characteristic identifying the source of requirements typically from requirements to design, to the source code and to test cases.

Horizontal traceability is an aspect identifying non hierarchical similarities, mutual properties, interactions, etc. among requirements and work products. For example assume we want to implement a login function in four different types of browsers. There are four sub teams to do this. Here the functional requirement remains the same. If any change in requirement happens, then it needs to be reflected across all the four browsers. These kind of dependent requirements are easily traceable if

Requirements are the basis for design. Requirements management processes manage all requirements received or generated by the project, including both technical and nontechnical requirements as well as requirements levied on the project by the organization.

In CMMI Requirements Management (REQM) Process Area provides traceability of requirements from customer requirements to product requirements to product component requirements. Requirements Development (RD) Process Area describes Customer requirements, Product and Product component requirements.

This post is a consolidation of different types of requirements as described in CMMI, starting from Customer requirements to Derived requirements.

Requirements 1

Customer requirements

Customer needs and constraints are analyzed and elaborated to obtain prioritized customer requirements. In Agile environments, customer needs and ideas are iteratively elicited, elaborated, analyzed, and validated.

 Contractual requirements

Customer requirements are further refined and made suitable to be included in the contractual documents or supplier agreements. Contractual requirements include both technical and nontechnical requirements necessary for the acquisition of a product or service.

 Product and product component requirements

The customer functional and quality attribute requirements are usually expressed in the customer’s terms and can be nontechnical descriptions. A translation of requirements from customer’s language to developer’s language gives rise to product requirements. Or rather the product requirements are the expression of the customer requirements in technical terms that can be used for design decisions. An example of this translation is found in the first House of Quality Function Deployment, which maps customer desires into technical parameters. For instance, “solid sounding door” may be mapped to size, weight, fit, dampening, and resonant frequencies.

The product architecture provides the basis for allocating product requirements to product components. The developer uses product requirements to guide the design and building of the product or service. Product component requirements are a complete specification of a product or service component, including fit, form, function, performance, and any other requirement.

In short, product and product component requirements are the refined Customer requirements. This refinement of customer requirements converts implicit requirements into explicit derived requirements such as interface requirements.

Derived Requirements

Derived Requirements are those requirements which are not explicitly stated in customer requirements but are inferred from contextual requirements (e.g., applicable standards, laws, policies, common practices, management decisions) or from requirements needed to specify a product or service component. Derived requirements can also arise during analysis and design of components of the product or service. Derived requirements also address the needs of other lifecycle phases (e.g., production, operations, and disposal) to the extent compatible with business objectives.

Interface requirements

As internal components are developed, additional interfaces are defined and interface requirements are established. Interfaces between functions (or between objects or other logical entities) are identified. Interface requirements between products or product components identified in the product architecture are defined. They are controlled as part of product and product component integration and are an integral part of the architecture definition. Before integration, each product component should be confirmed to be compliant with its interface requirements. Interfaces can drive the development of alternative solutions described in the Technical Solution process area.

The blog won’t be complete if the below kinds of requirements are not touched

  • Allocated requirement

Requirements are said to be allocated when the higher level requirements are levied on a lower level architectural element or design components.

More generally, requirements can be allocated to other logical or physical components including people, consumables, delivery increments, or the architecture as a whole, depending on what best enables the product or service to achieve the requirements.

  • Service requirements

Service requirements are the complete set of requirements that affect service delivery and service system development. Service requirements include both technical and nontechnical requirements.

  • Technical requirements

Technical requirements are the properties (i.e., attributes) of products or services to be acquired or developed

  • Nontechnical requirements

Nontechnical requirements are the requirements affecting product and service acquisition or development that are not properties of the product or service.

Examples include numbers of products or services to be delivered, data rights for delivered COTS and non- developmental items, delivery dates, and milestones with exit criteria. Other nontechnical requirements may include additional conditions and commitments identified by agreements, needed capabilities, conditions derived from business objectives and work constraints associated with training, site provisions, and deployment schedules etc.