While filing an issue, many a time the tester miss to add additional details specific to the bug. They must have done all the normal procedures, say like, steps, expected and actual results, environment details and all should have filed along with the issue.

But still sometimes the customer ends up in asking for further information, which is in fact a bit frustrating for them. During those cases both parties [customer and tester] need to invest additional effort to make the bug report adequate.

So just ensure a few of the points below if your bug is any of this type.

#If your bug is onDon't miss to attach
1Partial visibility of some buttons or something like thatDetails of screen resolution
2Some sentence correctionsYour suggestions on how to rewrite the sentence
3Some overlapping related issuesDetails in both landscape and portrait mode
4Page load issues Speed test result

A bug title is read more frequently than any other part of the bug report. So it has to be meaningful and easily understandable.

For example,

A bug : In the application while the user go to ‘xxx’ tab and search for an item with numeric characters, the app crashes

Poorly written bug title: App crashes

Here the bug title doesn’t summarize the scenario behind the crash

An average bug title: Searching in the ‘xxx’ tab leads to a crash

Here again the bug title is actually creating a false impression of the bug.

It could have better reworded like, “App crashes on searching in the xxx tab with numeric characters

Infact my suggestion would be to revisit and update the bug title finally, once the report is made fully.

After describing the issue, steps, expected and actual results, just look at the bug title. Definitely, you can do betterment on the same at the final stage.

So initially while starting to file the bug, just add a sentence or even some random keywords in the issue. Or even sometimes, just put whatever comes to your mind, say “my family”. [but of course don’t forget to change it properly at the end].

And finally, once the entire report is ready, revisit the bug title and update it properly. Spend a little more time on the issue title and have two or three revised titles so that it becomes fully meaningful at the end.

It’s always nice when you learn something new, try it yourself, test it, rectify the glitches, and finally feel the moment of fulfillment.

This is what I felt when I hosted my personal blog

There were so many issues while I was shifting from wordpress.com site to this self-hosted site. Infact actually it’s easy if you are starting from a self-hosted site itself as I did for… 656 more words

via Moving to Self-hosted WordPress Site — Words and Notion

Oops… that’s a show stopper one..

How did it happen..?

Most of the time when I try to reproduce  a crash issue I start thinking from the very first step and finally end up nowhere. Often the crash should have happened with the last step only.. Mostly it wouldn’t have any relation with the initial steps. So I am training myself to just recollect and redo the final steps.

Okay, so how all normally a show stopper issue or the so called crash issue happens in a mobile application?

I am adding a few of such checkpoints here…

  1. While the activity is playing in the app, just come out of the same by pressing the home button of the device and then try to return back
  2. Make the app in background by launching another app and then return to the app under test from recent window.
  3. Do interrupt the app via some mechanisms like phone calls or messaging
  4. Try an offline testing
  5. Try a test under weak battery
  6. Try offline-online switching frequently
  7. Landscape- portrait switching
  8. Access the app via multiple accounts at the same time
  9. Delete and already deleted item from the app if it’s shown for a while

How to install ipa on the device?

Are apps missing from the left section of your iTunes window?

Wondering where in the world are the apps in iTunes library?

A bit Google search helped me to understand that Apple had removed that app section in the latest version of iTunes 12.7 [released on September 19th 2017]

As a tester/developer it would be real trouble for you especially when you want to install a new apk in your ios device.

Never you are left alone. Always there is a workaround if something fails

I was so happy when I found this simple drag and drop solution to this trouble.

So here go the simple steps for you

  1. Save the ipa in your desktop
  2. Connect your ios device and your computer/laptop using the USB cable
  3. Open iTunes [might appear automatically]
  4. Drag and drop ipa on theDevices section on your device name only
  5. You are done.

It is time for a change, a renovation in process consultancy. For the last 40 or 50 years, the same steps are being followed; the same thought process is being applied with little or no change.

In between, industry specific new standards/models got evolved and practiced. Other than that no major change happened in the process consultancy arena. From where to start the change..?

If the right process is followed in the right way by the project team itself, then there is no need of a second person to ensure process compliance. But occurrence of mistakes is a common phenomenon especially when there is human intervention (and even with machines too). Hence it is always recommended to have an external person for verifying the process compliance.

The following questions may seem questioning the validity of existing well known standards or models. With due respect to all of those standards, I am trying to see the process frame work through different angles- “the second generation of Process Consultancy”.

• If all the projects are being executed in the same way following the same written process and procedures, how can they be innovative?

• If lessons earned are documented, passed to the followers and practiced, won’t they be copycats?

• Is the written process really fitting your projects or aren’t you pretending it to be okay, just to avoid the tailoring procedures?

• Is there really an established process for at least half part of your project or aren’t you just executing it as it come up on your way?

The questions won’t end here..it continues till there is a second generation. And then, only those consultants who have subject expertise as well as analytical nature may be the most suitable for next century organizations.

Horizontal traceability shows relationship among related items such as between requirements itself. It traces dependent items within a development phase. Vertical traceability is a characteristic identifying the source of requirements typically from requirements to design, to the source code and to test cases.

Horizontal traceability is an aspect identifying non hierarchical similarities, mutual properties, interactions, etc. among requirements and work products. For example assume we want to implement a login function in four different types of browsers. There are four sub teams to do this. Here the functional requirement remains the same. If any change in requirement happens, then it needs to be reflected across all the four browsers. These kind of dependent requirements are easily traceable if

Requirements are the basis for design. Requirements management processes manage all requirements received or generated by the project, including both technical and nontechnical requirements as well as requirements levied on the project by the organization.

In CMMI Requirements Management (REQM) Process Area provides traceability of requirements from customer requirements to product requirements to product component requirements. Requirements Development (RD) Process Area describes Customer requirements, Product and Product component requirements.

This post is a consolidation of different types of requirements as described in CMMI, starting from Customer requirements to Derived requirements.

Requirements 1

Customer requirements

Customer needs and constraints are analyzed and elaborated to obtain prioritized customer requirements. In Agile environments, customer needs and ideas are iteratively elicited, elaborated, analyzed, and validated.

 Contractual requirements

Customer requirements are further refined and made suitable to be included in the contractual documents or supplier agreements. Contractual requirements include both technical and nontechnical requirements necessary for the acquisition of a product or service.

 Product and product component requirements

The customer functional and quality attribute requirements are usually expressed in the customer’s terms and can be nontechnical descriptions. A translation of requirements from customer’s language to developer’s language gives rise to product requirements. Or rather the product requirements are the expression of the customer requirements in technical terms that can be used for design decisions. An example of this translation is found in the first House of Quality Function Deployment, which maps customer desires into technical parameters. For instance, “solid sounding door” may be mapped to size, weight, fit, dampening, and resonant frequencies.

The product architecture provides the basis for allocating product requirements to product components. The developer uses product requirements to guide the design and building of the product or service. Product component requirements are a complete specification of a product or service component, including fit, form, function, performance, and any other requirement.

In short, product and product component requirements are the refined Customer requirements. This refinement of customer requirements converts implicit requirements into explicit derived requirements such as interface requirements.

Derived Requirements

Derived Requirements are those requirements which are not explicitly stated in customer requirements but are inferred from contextual requirements (e.g., applicable standards, laws, policies, common practices, management decisions) or from requirements needed to specify a product or service component. Derived requirements can also arise during analysis and design of components of the product or service. Derived requirements also address the needs of other lifecycle phases (e.g., production, operations, and disposal) to the extent compatible with business objectives.

Interface requirements

As internal components are developed, additional interfaces are defined and interface requirements are established. Interfaces between functions (or between objects or other logical entities) are identified. Interface requirements between products or product components identified in the product architecture are defined. They are controlled as part of product and product component integration and are an integral part of the architecture definition. Before integration, each product component should be confirmed to be compliant with its interface requirements. Interfaces can drive the development of alternative solutions described in the Technical Solution process area.

The blog won’t be complete if the below kinds of requirements are not touched

  • Allocated requirement

Requirements are said to be allocated when the higher level requirements are levied on a lower level architectural element or design components.

More generally, requirements can be allocated to other logical or physical components including people, consumables, delivery increments, or the architecture as a whole, depending on what best enables the product or service to achieve the requirements.

  • Service requirements

Service requirements are the complete set of requirements that affect service delivery and service system development. Service requirements include both technical and nontechnical requirements.

  • Technical requirements

Technical requirements are the properties (i.e., attributes) of products or services to be acquired or developed

  • Nontechnical requirements

Nontechnical requirements are the requirements affecting product and service acquisition or development that are not properties of the product or service.

Examples include numbers of products or services to be delivered, data rights for delivered COTS and non- developmental items, delivery dates, and milestones with exit criteria. Other nontechnical requirements may include additional conditions and commitments identified by agreements, needed capabilities, conditions derived from business objectives and work constraints associated with training, site provisions, and deployment schedules etc.

Organizations and companies often go for certifications/assessment like ISO 9001 or ISO 27001 or CMMI. A company may decide to seek certification for many reasons, as certification can:

  • Meet Customer Requirements
  • Result in more revenue and business from new customers
  • Improve Company and Product Quality

Assessment process is a continuous cycle. There are some stages/steps in this continuous cycle leading to certification and sustenance.  For organizations that are new to the implementation process, attaining certification can be a little bit troublesome activity. This article helps to make the implementation stress-free through the ten points explained below. Assessment

1. Determine scope of registration

Determine whether the entire organization or a part of the organization is going for certification. Sometimes only a particular product in the organization is seeking for certification.

2. Get quotes from accredited third-party certifying bodies

The certifying bodies must be accredited to conduct audits. After evaluating several certification bodies (Transition partners in case of CMMI) based on their quotes and many other factors, the best suited certification body is selected by the organization. Once the quote is accepted by both parties – client and certification body, an auditor contacts the client to schedule the assessment audits. It’s vital to clarify and check for other hidden costs such as ‘registration’ and travel fees when obtaining quotes from the certification bodies.

3. Study of standard/model requirements

The first step in any certification/assessment process is ‘to have a clear understanding of the standard/model’. If people are not comfortable with the new standard, perhaps the first step in any implementation could be training on the new standard/model from experts in the industry. If required, organization can opt external consultancy to get help in implementation strategy. A good consultant can increase the value of the process.

4. Gap Analysis

It has to be evaluated how far away is the present management system or the product compliance from the new standard. Gap analysis, Pre-assessment, Internal audits etc. can be used for this evaluation. For more details on gap analysis, please refer Performing gap analysis. The Gap analysis documentation provides the input to the sub sequent phases.

5. Establish an implementation plan

An implementation team, work division, milestones of activities etc. need to be set up. Training has to be to be provided to the implementation team. Implementing the new management system needs to be an organization-wide target developed by senior management. (‘organization’ refers to the entire organization, a part of the organization or a project team as per the scope defined)

6. Ensure the implementation as per plan

The steps include preparation and review of procedures, manuals, other supporting documents, training to the affected parties on the new/changed system and deploying new/changed system.

7. Practice and live with the new system

During this period, observe and evaluate the new/changed system for its effectiveness. Audits need to be conducted to evaluate the changed system. Auditors must be trained to conduct the audits. Existing loop holes, inefficiencies, etc. are corrected and corrective actions are deployed. This leads to continuous improvement of the system. After a few months, the new system and the organization should be ready for the registration audit.

8. Third party Assessment/ certification

The number of auditors needed, and the time involved to conduct a registration audit may vary according to the size and complexity of the organization. Pre-assessments/Stage1 audits are conducted before the final assessment. During the pre-assessments, auditor reviews the existing systems and provides a report identifying further actions required to meet the standard requirements. Once the organization is ready and has fixed the gaps reported in the pre-assessment, the auditor performs the registration/final audit. The final audit is held in accordance with the audit plan. Upon completion of the audit, the auditor generates an audit report identifying non-conformances, if any are there. The client resolves these non-conformances. Once the auditor approves the closure of non-conformances, organization (or client) is recommended for certification. The auditor’s report is then verified via an approval process and if no anomalies are identified, certification is officially granted. Then the auditor works with the client to set up subsequent surveillance audits/health checks to ensure continuous adherence to the standard.

9. Sustaining the standard/model

Attaining a certification is not a one time job. The sustenance of the same is also equally important. So proper attention must be paid to ensure that level of certification is not degraded. To achieve the benefits of improvement from the new/changed system, an organization has to be committed in maintaining and amending the system over time to best suit its requirements. The tough work really starts with the maintenance of the new/changed system. And hence continued buy-in from everyone is important for the implementation to succeed, and for the organization to obtain the true advantages of becoming certified. So proper training needs to be carried out regularly to ensure on-going awareness. In addition, internal audits must be conducted to ensure the compliance to the requirements of the standard/model.

10. Get Buy-In

Getting full support from management and employees is crucial for the success of any certification/assessment program. The company executives need to be well clear on the advantages, requirements and costs etc. It’s also important that the employees are confident on the new system.

Baselines are created for the core “value-generating” processes of the business in the organizations. From the observed measurement data, an organization comes up with various process performance baselines (PPB) periodically. In a software industry, there can be PPBs for coding speed, defect density, productivity, testing speed, review effectiveness etc. Then measurable improvement targets (process performance objectives) are set for the selected processes. Say for example an objective could be to increase the coding speed by 10 % (Definitely some improvement initiatives need to be there to achieve the targets which are above to the current performance). Even, there can be an objective to maintain the performance at current level itself instead of improving upon the same. The process performance objectives are based on

    • the organization’s business objectives
    • the past performance of projects
    • customer requirements

In all these cases organization needs to have a reference value as baseline to know where it is right now. (Otherwise goals will be subjective) Baselines show the current performance measures of an organization. Now assume a case where an organization has just started to collect measurement data. Definitely there won’t be a baseline initially. In this scenario, how the organization will be setting objectives, without a reference baselines

They can have different options as below.

  1. Industry bench marks
  2. The organization can look in to the industry benchmarks. If the organization is performing a similar nature of work as per the contextual information of the industry benchmarks, they can use those values as references for setting targets.
  3. Expert discussions and brainstorming
  4. There might be employees in the organization who are much skilled to come up with some reference values on the critical processes for setting the targets.
  5. Collecting information from similar organization.
  6. The organization can refer baselines of other similar organization via employee contacts and use it as reference values.
  7. Process Performance Models (PPMs)
  8. If there are some prediction models defined, suitable to the requirements of the organization, dependent parameters (y values) can be predicted, assuming organization have some knowledge on the values of the independent parameters(x values)

When a reference value is obtained, organization can build targets upon the same. Once the organization has collected enough data over a period of time, PPBs can be built. Then those PPBs can be used to set targets for coming year. In this way process is continued and baselines are revised on a periodical manner, say on a yearly basis or so.

Add your points if you have got some other methods ‘to set objectives when there is no baseline’