History of CMMI
CMMI was originated by SEI (Software Engineering Institute), sponsored by US Department of Defence. Later on SEI has transferred CMMI-related products and activities to the CMMI Institute, a 100%-controlled subsidiary of Carnegie Innovations, Carnegie Mellon University’s technology commercialization enterprise.
The below pictures illustrates the evolution of CMMI
When the era of computerized information systems started in 1960, there was a significant demand for software development. Even though software industry was growing rapidly, many processes for software development were amateur and project failure was common.
- In the 1980s, many US military projects involving software subcontractors were lagging behind the schedule. Also, several projects ran over-budget. Then the United States Air Force funded a study at the SEI to determine why this was occurring,
- In the mean time Watts Humphrey had started developing his process maturity concepts based on “The Quality Management Maturity Grid “(QMMG) . QMMG was developed by Philip B. Crosby in his book Quality is Free, in 1979. (QMMG is an organizational maturity matrix . The QMMG is used by a business or organization to evaluate their process maturity.)
- in 1986 Humphrey joined the Software Engineering Institute. At the request of the U.S. Air Force he began formalizing his Process Maturity Framework to help the U.S. Department of Defence. The outcome of the study was a model for the military to use as an objective evaluator of software subcontractors’ process capability maturity.
- Watts Humphrey’s Capability Maturity Model (CMM) was published in 1988and as a book in 1989, in ‘Managing the Software Process’.
- Based on experience in using the software process maturity framework and the maturity questionnaire for diagnosing problems and improving processes, the SEI formalized the concepts as the Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM). Version 1.0 of the model was published in 1991
- CMM Version 1.1 was released in 1993 and published as a book in 1995.
- Subsequently, there were additional CMMs developed – Systems Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SE-CMM), Software Acquisition CMM, the People CMM, the Integrated Product Development CMM etc.
- When the SW-CMM Version 2.0 was completing its review process in 1997, the concept of a stand-alone CMM was cancelled by the decision to release SW-CMM v2.0 under the CMM Integration (CMMI) project.
- CMM integration project was a joint government, industry, and SEI initiative to combine the various CMMs covering different disciplines into a common framework that organizations could use for enterprise-wide process improvement initiatives.
- In 2000, the CMMI product team published the original CMMI model, training, and appraisal method, which incorporated software and systems engineering. The model was also designed to support the future integration of other disciplines
- CMMI V 1.1 was released in the year2002.
- CMMI V1.2 was released as an upgrade to version 1.1. In version 1.2 hardware amplifications and examples were added and IPPD practices were consolidated and simplified. This version introduced the concept of CMMI “constellations“: Constellations are the sets of CMMI components designed to meet the needs of specific areas of interest. The 3 constellations evolved in V 1.2 are CMMI for Development (Dev), CMMI for Services (SVC) and CMMI for Acquisition (ACQ). The 3 constellations were released in different time period which caused some confusions in constellation commonality.
- In CMMI V 1.3, which was released in 2010, all the three constellations – SVC, ACQ and Dev, got released in the same period, considering all the similarities across them. Also removal of IPPD addition, support for agile software development, High Maturity Clarificationsetc are some other major changes happened in the CMMI version 1.3. ( For more details on changes between CMMI Dev V 1.2 and V 1.3, please refer CMMI- Dev V 1.3 Changes – 1.2 Vs 1.3)