Review is one of the methods for verifying an artefact. (Another method forverification of source code is unit testing). A proper review provides answers to all the ‘wh’ questions.(Refer 15 Points to be taken care during review of a work-product). In fact review itself can be defined using the ‘wh’ questions


Catching defects early reduces cost. Below 15 points explains the things to be taken care during review of a document.

  1. Ensure compliance w.r.t higher level documents. For example, If a design document is reviewed, ensure that all the user needs detailed in requirement document are addressed in the design document too
  2. Ensure spelling and grammar. It has got its own importance especially during translation from one language to another.
  3. Ensure that the document addresses an alternate way of

Reviews have been introduced based on Weinberg’s Concept of Egoless Programming Principle. According to this principle, independent teams are established to detect defects. All work products come under the scope of review. It is the responsibility of project manager to identify the work products for review and allocate sufficient time for review. In case 100% review is not feasible, the work products which need not be reviewed shall be identified in the project.

 Review process may vary based on the type of review as well as procedures /steps involved in the review. It has got 3 critical aspects. And it could be summarised as below

How can we optimize the time and effort of a full time QA person (process consultant) in a project..? In majority of the cases, at least 50 % of the auditing work done by QA could be automated.. Then how could the QA work be made cost effective..?

A traffic police controls the traffic in a road. Now we could see traffic signals in majority of the places, which too automated system regulating traffic according to the situation. Is there really a need of a full time traffic police..? Of course people intervention is required when there is some critical issues which cannot be rectified by machines/when machines are down. Other than that, is it not a waste of effort/money to employ a man full time to regulate the traffic? May, be at peak hours, at some busy junctions, can have man also in addition to machines. Or rather, if still a full time person is required, his time should be used more fruitfully, not merely limited to traffic regulations, say like helping high way police, supporting as a travel Guide to whoever required etc , etc .

Similarly, how can we optimize the time and effort of a full time QA person (process consultant) in a project..? In majority of the cases, atleast 50 % of the auditing work done by QA could be automated, and then it is a matter of proper interpretation/analysis of the findings. So wherever possible routine stuffs should be automated and QA person needs to put his/her eyes mostly on taking preventive measures/risk identification. Prevention is always better than detection. Prevention could be triggered through day to day project level activities, data examination, statistical analysis etc. Now, what more action could be taken so that full time QA persons can be cost beneficial to the project/organization? Or what do you think about the presence a full time QA person in a project?


Opportunity for a risk lies in every field of operation.  Risk could arise from different contexts related to project management, safety, security, quality of product etc. But in majority of the cases risks are not identified on time and thereby leading it to become a problem in future.

There are a wide variety of standards or models emphasising the importance of risk management, using frameworks like Quality Management Systems (QMS), Information Security management System (ISMS), Environmental Management System (EMS), Safety Management System etc. Among the different standards which talk about risk management, the standard- ISO 31000 tries to build a uniform platform for the risk management activities irrespective of the industry or sector. ISO 31000 does not enforce any framework; it just codifies some good practices.

A risk is a potential issue waiting to happen leading to some unintended effects. If there is zero probability for the risk to happen, then it is not at all a risk. Similarly, if there is no adverse effect with the happening of the issue, it is not a risk. If the issue had already happened, it is no more a risk, but a problem.

Risk Identification and Analysis

There could be various risks inside the projects. Those needs to be first identified and then analysed based on their probability of occurrence and effect (impact). Based on these analysis risk needs to be prioritised for action.  Here we are actually prioritising the risks based on three factors i.e. Probability of occurrence, impact and detectability of the risk

Highly probable, huge impact and low detectable risks needs to be treated first. For prioritization of risks we need to have some metrics associated with it. We call it as risk value. It is the product of probability, impact and detectability.

There are a lot many methods to improve the quality. Quality improvements can be people, process, product or technology based. The following list covers some of the main quality improvement methods.

Statistical Process Control (SPC) 

Process can be controlled statistically if the measurable parameter associated with the process is monitored on a continuous basis. The monitoring and controlling can be easily digested if charts are used for plotting the data. One of the seven Quality Control tools, known as Control chart is mainly used for this purpose.

The history of quality management, from mere ‘inspection’ to Total Quality Management, and its modern ‘branded interpretations such as ‘Six Sigma’, leading  to the development of essential processes is described in a sequential order below, based on a research work

In a competitive era of software industry, the demand is to ascertain that products of highest quality are delivered in the least possible schedule. Historians have traced the concept as far back as 3000 B.C. in Babylonia. Among the references to quality from the code of Hammurabi, ruler of Babylonia, is the following excerpt: “The mason who builds a house which falls down and kills the inmate shall be put to death.” This law reflects a concern for quality in antiquity.

During pre-industrial revolution the dominant Production method was Craftsmanship model. The master craftsman set standards, reviewed the work of others and ordered rework and revision as necessary. One of the limitations of the craft approach was that relatively few goods could be produced.

In the late 13th century,

Integrated system is a broad topic with varying perspectives. Definitely, in the fast moving world, the necessity of an integrated System is inevitable. Organizations all over the world are increasingly concerned to improve their management systems to ensure their sustenance in the competitive markets. There are a wide variety of standards demanded by the markets, say like ISO standards which are popular in European countries where as CMMI in American countries. These models or standards like CMMI, ISO 9001, ISO 13485 etc are frameworks for setting up a Quality Management System (QMS). There are cases where organizations are looking for setting up other management systems like Information Security Management System (ISMS), Environmental Management System (EMS) etc. either in a segregated manner or integrated manner. But while defining, implementing and maintaining the management system, the organization experiences high difficulty in relation to the needs of the organization and the levels of integration of these management systems.
Integrated Management System (IMS) is beneficial not only for the organization, but also for the auditors. But setting up of an IMS has to be very careful so that it won’t compromise any of the required practices of as well as not a burden upon the employees of the organization in order to implement and maintain the same. In many cases IMS will be compliant to the required models and standards, if there are experts to interpret the same. But usability part of the same will be on the minimal side as practitioners might face difficulty to get the required information based on the nature of the project they are doing. It will be a cumbersome task for the practitioners